Caroline Wylie, Ph.D., is a national expert on formative assessment, the role it plays within balanced assessment systems, and the learning support that teachers need to engage in these practices with their students.

Her research has focused on the use of formative assessment to improve classroom teaching and learning. She has led studies on the creation of effective, scalable and sustainable teacher professional development, the formative use of diagnostic questions for classroom-based assessment, and the role of learning progressions to support formative assessment in mathematics and science.

She is currently the principal investigator of an Institute of Education Sciences-funded project that explores rater quality for formative classroom observations, and a co-principal investigator on another IES-funded project that examines the formative use of process data and automated scoring to support middle school writing instruction.

Caroline is a co-leader of the Council of Chief State School Officers’ Balanced Assessment Collaborative, and a former leader of its formative assessment focused Collaborative. She has served on the Classroom Assessment Committee for the National Council on Measurement in Education.

Caroline is a co-author of a forthcoming chapter on supporting assessment literacy in a volume on Balanced Assessment Systems to be published by the National Academy of Education. She has published dozens of chapters and peer-reviewed articles, two co-authored books, and she regularly presents her work at the national conferences of the American Educational Research Association, National Council on Measurement in Education, and the Council of Chief State School Officers.

Caroline earned a Ph.D. from Queen’s University, Belfast, in assessment and standard-setting, and also earned a Postgraduate Certificate in Education there, with an emphasis on mathematics.

Recent Publications

Wylie, E. C. (2023). Systems of assessment and impact on classroom practices. Springer International Handbook of Educational Development in Asia Pacific.

Wylie, E. C. & Gholson, M. (2023). U.S. federal assessment policy reforms in the 21st century and their impacts. The International Encyclopedia of Education (4th Edition, Assessment and Accountability section).

Wylie, E. C. & Heritage, M. (2021). Developing and deepening formative assessment knowledge and skills. In Formative Assessment: Making It Happen in the Classroom (2nd edition) by Margaret Heritage. Corwin, A SAGE Company, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Heritage, M., & Wylie, E. C. (2020). Formative Assessment in the Disciplines: Framing a Continuum of Professional Learning. Harvard Education Press.

Wylie, E. C. (2020). Digital Module 20: Classroom assessment standards. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 39(4), pp.135-136.

Wylie, E. C. (2020). Observing formative assessment practice: Learning lessons through validation. Educational Assessment, 25,(4), 251-258.

Wylie, E. C. & Lyon, C. (2020). Developing a formative assessment protocol to support professional growth. Educational Assessment, 25(4), 314-330.

Wylie, E. C. & Lyon, C. (2019). The role of technology-enhanced self- and peer assessment in formative assessment. In S. M. Brookhart and J. H. McMillan (Eds.) Classroom Assessment and Educational Measurement (pp. 170-191). New York, NY: Routledge.

Lyon, C. J., Nabors Oláh, L. & Wylie, E. C. (2019). Working towards integrated practice: Understanding the interaction among formative assessment strategies. The Journal of Educational Research, 112(3), 301-314.

Heritage, M. & Wylie, E. C. (2018). Reaping the benefits of assessment for learning: Achievement, equity and identity. ZDM Mathematics Education, 50(4), 729-741.

Blog Posts Authored by Caroline Wylie