In Understanding Pandemic Learning Loss and Learning Recovery: The Role of Student Growth & Statewide Testing we show how states, with spring 2021 assessment data together with student growth results derived from it, are positioned to address critical questions regarding academic learning loss. Answers to these questions, together with academic data derived from other sources, will help states, districts and schools form approaches to ameliorating the impact of the pandemic on their students. As of January 2021, the United States is almost completely in the dark as to the pandemic’s impact on student learning. Early interim assessment results have given us a glimpse of the magnitude of the impact but have been extremely limited otherwise. We need statewide assessment and growth data to intelligently move forward.