Measuring Student Success Skills: A Review of the Literature on Complex Communication

States are increasingly interested in conceptualizing, defining, and assessing what are often called 21st century skills or deeper-learning competencies. This paper explores the literature on complex communication. Key initial questions include: What is complex communication? How is complex communication related to other concepts of success skill? And to what extent does complex communication develop over time? This foundational information will then be used to examine (a) instructional approaches to promote complex communication, (b) benefits of complex communication on valued student outcomes such as student learning, and (c) ways teachers can collect evidence that reveals the benefits of complex communication using student artifacts and other appropriate measures.